Believing in Allah and his attributes as the very important part of Iman to be a Muslim.
According to the Ash´ari ´aqida, the following 20 attributes, established in the Essence (Dhat) of Allah
(i.e. inherent in Him), are logically necessary (wajib).
E.g. Allah necessarily exists – He is wajib al-wujud. It is therefore imperative to believe in them, and to negate their opposites.
The essential Attributes (Wajib) : 20
Logically Impossible Attributes (Mustahil): 20
Logically Possible Attributes (Ja’iz): 01
The essential attribute | الصفة النفسية
1) Being | الوجود
2) Existence from pre-eternity | القدم
3) Everlastingness | البقاء
4) His being different from all that is accidental | مخالفته تعلى للحوادث
5) His Self-subsistence | قيامه تعالى بنفسه
6) Oneness | الوحدانية
7) Power | القدرة
8) Will | الإرادة
9) Knowledge | العلم
10) Life | الحياة
11) Hearing | السمع
12) Seeing | البصر
13) Speech | الكلام
Connected to the abstract attributes | الصفات المعتوعة
14) His being powerfull | كونه قديرا
15) His exerting will | كونه مريدا
16) His being knowledgable | كونه عليما
17) His being alife | كونه حيا
18) His being hearing | كونه سميعا
19) His being seeing | كونه بصير
20) His being a speaker | كونه متكلما
Logically Impossible Attributes of Allah – ما يستحيل في حق الله تعالى
The aforementioned Attributes being logically necessary for Allah, it is logically impossible (mustahil) for Him to have the opposite attributes.
E.g. it is impossible for Him to be non-existent, unable, not seeing, etc.
Logically Possible Attributes of Allah – ما يجوز في حق الله تعالى
Allah has an infinite set of Attributes regarding what is possible (ja’iz) for Him. In summary, everything that is not logically impossible is possible for him. For instance, it is possible for him to create or not to create, to give life and to extinguish life, to send Messengers or not to send them etc.